Lower Abdominal Pain

lower abdominal pain

Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment Of Lower Abdominal Pain 

What is Lower Abdominal Pain?

lower abdominal pain causes

Lower abdominal pain is any discomfort or annoying sensation rising or occurring within the abdomen at A level below the belly button or umbilicus.

This could be:

  • Lower right abdominal pain
  • Lower left abdominal pain
  • Lower central abdominal pain (just under the umbilicus or below the bikini line within the middle, also called suprapubic pain)
  • Lower abdominal and back pain

Do you have pain here? Where exactly is your pain? the foremost important task now’s to undertake and compute what’s causing the pain and more importantly to exclude serious conditions of abdominal pain that need immediate medical attention.

To do so, let’s take a glance at the organs that are found within the lower abdomen and identify what can fail with these organs, the foremost common causes of abdominal pain during this region, and the way to spot them, also as an inventory of other causes of pain within the lower abdomen.

Organs In The Lower Abdomen


The lower abdomen is where the tiny and enormous intestines are located including the appendix, cecum, sigmoid flexure, and rectum.

It is also the place where the subsequent organs and structures are housed:

  • Urine bladder
  • Parts of the ureters
  • Urethra
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Womb or uterus
  • Ligaments that hold the uterus in situ (broad and round ligaments)
  • Prostate
  • Spermatic tubes
  • Muscles
  • Bones
  • Nerves
  • Large, medium, and little sized blood vessels just like the aorta, iliac arteries, and inferior arteria epigastrica respectively
  • Lymph nodes and a variety of bones

Beneath these yet personally associated with the lower mid-region are the scrotum, balls, and epididymis in men.

Any infection, inflammation, or injury affecting any of those organs will end in pain and discomfort, often felt within the lower abdomen.

To aid our understanding of the way to compute things that may be wrong within the lower abdomen, let’s now re-arrange the organs within the abdomen, roughly as they might be naturally found within the abdomen.

Organs In Right Lower Abdomen

  • The Appendix
  • Cecum
  • Ascending Colon (Early a part of the large bowel)
  • Right Ovary and Fallopian tube (in women)
  • Right Psoas Muscle
  • Lower a part of Right Ureter
  • Right arteria iliaca and Vein
  • Right funiculus
  • Right Inferior arteria epigastrica
  • Skin and Nerves over the proper Lower Abdomen

Organs In Left Lower Abdomen

  • Descending Colon
  • Sigmoid Colon
  • Left Ovary and Fallopian tube (in women)
  • Part of the aorta
  • Left Psoas Muscle
  • Lower a part of Left Ureter
  • Left arteria iliaca and Vein
  • Left funiculus
  • Left Inferior arteria epigastrica
  • Skin and Nerves over the Left Lower Abdomen

Organs In Central Lower Abdomen

  • Loops of Small and enormous Intestines
  • The bladder
  • Uterus (in women)
  • Rectum and Anus
  • The Bones of the Lower Spine (Lumbar and sacral Vertebra)
  • Lower a part of the aorta

Common Causes Of Lower Abdominal Pain

Appendicitis, bladder infection or cystitis, pelvic disease, menstrual or period pain, extrauterine pregnancy, miscarriage, irritable bowel syndrome, endometriosis, diverticulitis, urine tract infection, fibroid, poly-cystic ovarian syndrome, lower ureteric stones, and constipation are the foremost common causes of lower abdominal pain.

Other causes of pain within the lower abdomen include intestinal gas or trapped wind, disorder, colitis, regional enteritis, bowel polyps, bowel cancer, cancer of the womb or Fallopian tubes, PMS, pelvic congestion, and pelvic pain syndrome.

The ten top common causes of lower abdominal pain in both men and ladies are:

1. Acute Appendicitis

Appendicitis is one of the foremost common causes of lower right abdominal pain in both men and ladies, old and young. Though appendicitis can occur at any age it’s more common between the ages of 10 and 30.

Symptoms of acute appendicitis last for a couple of days (usually between 3 to six days) and if not diagnosed and treated it’ll worsen with complications. it’s rare for it to urge better on its own. The pain from appendicitis won’t go on and on for weeks or months.

The early symptoms of acute appendicitis are:

  • A colicky or cramping central abdominal pain around the umbilicus moves right down to the lower right abdomen during a day or two
  • Continuous dull to severe pain within the lower right abdomen
  • Agony exacerbated by hacking, giggling, or squeezing straightforwardly on the lower right mid-region
  • Feeling generally unwell
  • Nausea and maybe vomiting once or twice once the pain starts
  • Loss of appetite
  • A temperature (feeling feverish, hot, and cold)
  • There could also be a light episode of constipation (more in adults) and diarrhea (more in common in children)

Does this sound like you? If you’ve got quite half the above symptoms, you’re likely to be affected by appendicitis. Contact your primary care physician or go to your neighborhood Emergency Department.

Treatment is typically by removal of the diseased appendix by surgery. you’ll learn more about acute appendicitis here.

2. Urine Tract Infection (Cystitis)

Infection of the tract is another quite common of lower abdominal pain, especially in children and ladies. The urine tract starts from and includes the kidneys, ureters (the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder), the bladder (urinary bladder), and therefore the urethra (the tube that connects the bladder to the surface world.

A bladder infection is named cystitis. If it’s not recognized and treated it could spread upwards to affect one or both of the kidneys. In extreme cases, it can cause a really serious infection which can require hospitalization.

The symptoms of cystitis are:

  • A dull lower central abdominal ache of gradual onset within the Judgment Day or two
  • An increase within the number of times you pass urine. you’ll notice that you simply attend pass urine in small amounts every few hours and yet still desire you would like to try to do more
  • Pain, stinging, or burning sensation when passing urine
  • Lower abdominal and back pain. The torment may even spread upward to the side of your back towards your kidney zone
  • Feeling more tired than usual
  • Disarray and acting nonsensically (almost certain in old individuals)
  • Focal stomach torment and spewing (almost certain in youngsters)
  • Fever
  • Blood within the urine or your urine becoming rose-colored

Does that sound such as you or someone you care for? it is time to hunt medical attention.

Antibiotics like Trimethoprim 200mg Twice Daily; Nitrofurantoin 50mg fourfold A Day; Or Co-amoxiclav 625mg 3 times daily, for up to 7 days, are frequently utilized in treating this condition in adults with excellent response.

3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome which is usually mentioned as IBS can cause pain and discomfort within the lower abdomen. IBS is extremely common with approximately 5 in every 20 people affected by this condition. it’s two and a half times more common in women than in men and may occur at any age.

The symptoms of IBS are:

  • Lower central or left-sided abdominal pain or discomfort (more often on the lower left abdomen) that’s relieved with defecation
  • Bloating or feeling mild to moderate abdominal tightness
  • Change within the number of times you pass stools
  • Abdominal pain made worse from eating
  • Passing of bodily fluid or sludge in stools (without blood)
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Feeling tired and lethargic most of the time

Is that you? Have these symptoms been happening for about 6 months or more? Why not have talked together with your doctor as you’ll be suffering from irritable bowel syndrome.

Treatment options for IBS include:

  • Dietary changes (keep a log or journal of what aggravates your agony and evade them)Exercise
  • Use of medicines like mebeverine, alverine, and flavorer
  • Amitriptyline
  • Loperamide for those with diarrhea
  • Acupuncture and use of burn plant capsules or tablets

IBS must only be diagnosed after every other possible cause of the sort of pain that you simply have has been excluded. So it’s important to not self-diagnose and treat yourself for IBS, just just in case it’s something else. See your doctor.

4. Mesenteric Adenitis

Mesenteric adenitis, also mentioned as non-specific mesenteric lymphadenitis, is another common explanation for lower abdominal pain, especially in children.

It is a condition where the glands on the wall of the tiny bowels become inflamed, swollen, and painful, usually following a pharyngitis or virus infection.

Typically, the complaints are:

  • Lower right-sided abdominal pain
  • A fever, cough, and cold which has lasted up to 2 weeks
  • Sore throat, tonsillitis, or ear pain
  • Diarrhea and or vomiting

This condition usually mimics acute appendicitis. The difference is usually that the kid or adult would still have an honest appetite, while in appendicitis, the appetite becomes poor. The pain in mesenteric lymphadenitis might be fleeting. The pain could move around (as the tiny bowel floats around inside the abdomen) so it’s going to not always be confined to the proper lower abdomen as is often the case in appendicitis. Also, the precedence of the pain by pharyngitis, cough, and cold which is lasting a couple of weeks is unusual with appendicitis.

Treatment is with simple pain killers, much clear fluid intake, and rest.

5. Endometriosis

Endometriosis may be a condition where the traditional tissue or cells that line the inner surface of the womb are found outside the womb.

These tissues then answer an equivalent hormonal stimulation that causes menstruation, resulting in menstrual bleed into spaces outside the womb. The blood caught in such an unusual site causes a delayed disturbance, scarring, and torment
round the zone, they’re kept in

They also cause the surface of organs and bowels nearby to stay together, resulting in

  • Chronic lower abdominal pain
  • Heavy menses
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Excessive tiredness
  • Infertility (in some cases)

Treatment is thru pain killers, hormones, surgery, and medicine.

6. Pelvic disease (PID)

The pelvic disease also referred to as PID is another common explanation for lower abdominal pain in women. it’s an ascending infection of the feminine genital tract. The disease regularly includes the belly, Fallopian tube, ovaries, and tissues encompassing the belly and ovaries.

This contamination is brought about by explicitly communicated sicknesses in around 95 percent of cases. it’s an infection commonly seen in women between the ages of 16 and 30, although can occur in any sexually active woman and have quite one sexual partner.

If not diagnosed and treated in time, it could lead to severe infections, infertility, and an increased risk of extrauterine pregnancy.

The symptoms of pelvic disease or PID are:

  • Mild, moderate to severe lower abdominal pain which will spread to the lower back
  • Agony during intercourse (somewhere inside the pelvis or lower mid-region)
  • Abnormal discharge (may be foul smelling)
  • New-onset vaginal bleed after intercourse
  • Heavy menstrual bleed with a mixture of the above symptoms
  • Fever and usually feeling unwell
  • Pain when passing urine

PID is best treated within the GUM clinic, though it is often treated by your doctor too. Treatment involves the initial taking of a swab specimen from inside the vagina and neck of the womb for testing for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other possible infections (if you’ve got a coil or IUCD or IUS fitted this can be removed). you’ll then be prescribed antibiotics. Commonly used antibiotics include Doxycycline 100mg to be taken TWICE Daily for 14 days, plus Metronidazole 400mg 3 times daily for 7 -14 days; or ofloxacin 400mg and Metronidazole (Flagyl) 400mg, both Twice Daily for 14 days; or other sorts of antibiotics as per local choice.

7. Mid Cycle Pain (Mittelschmerz)

Mittelschmerz or mid-cycle pain is pain related to ovulation. it’s quite common in young women, especially within a couple of years of their menarche or first menstrual period. it’s a standard explanation for lower abdominal pain.

The symptoms of Mid Cycle Pain are pain within the right or left lower abdomen for about 2 weeks or after your last menstrual period, for those that have a 28 days regular menstrual interval. The pain could come on suddenly, lasting between a couple of minutes up to three days. The pain might be sharp or dull, moderate but rarely severe. It happens once monthly and will get on the proper lower abdomen this month, then the left lower abdomen subsequent month, or skips a couple of months before approaching again.

Most women can tolerate the pain once they understand what it’s. There are often no other associated symptoms. A warm bath and therefore the use of straightforward pain killers like paracetamol or Tylenol is all which will be required.

8. Constipation

Yes. Constipation. this is often a standard explanation for lower abdominal in children, men, and ladies.

Constipation is that the infrequent or difficulty with the passage of feces. most people open their bowel daily or every other day. a couple of would only open their bowel once or twice during a week. Has the number of times you pass stools recently reduced? Are you passing hard stools or maybe even straining to let loose feces? If so, you’ll be constipated.

Other symptoms of constipation include:

  • Dull or sharp lower abdominal pain. It might be on the left or right side or within the middle of the abdomen
  • Decreased craving or staying away from suppers until after your entrails are
  • openedFarting quite usual
  • Passage of very big stools
  • Passage of small rabbit-droppings stools
  • Not getting to the toilet for days then passing small frequent loose watery stools with an awful odor (especially in children and therefore the elderly)
  • Children walking on tipped toes
  • Vomiting

In the majority of cases, constipation is simple and treatable. But sometimes, it’d be a symbol of something more serious, including a symbol of conditions like bowel obstruction or cancer. If you’re having ongoing constipation, abdominal pain, you’re vomiting and your abdomen is getting distended see your doctor as soon as possible. you ought to also visit the doctor if you’re constipated on and off for months, losing weight, and have a poor appetite.

Laxatives like Senna, Lactulose, Fybogel, and Movicol are excellent medicines in the treatment of constipation.

9. Ovarian cyst Pain

Ovarian cyst pain is extremely common. it’s a frequent explanation for lower right or left abdominal pain.

The pain from a cyst could are available one among the subsequent forms:

  • Ruptured endocrine gland Cyst. this is often certainly the most typical explanation for cyst pain. After ovulation round, the middle interval between your periods, eggs is released from follicles on your ovary. variety of days later or maybe up to a couple of days after your menstruation, blood could tract into the empty “shell” or follicle where the eggs are released from, distending the blister or potentially seep into the mid-region causing sharp disturbing lower stomach torment. Such pain is often experienced a couple of days up to every week after your menses. This condition will often resolve on its own, doesn’t need treatment, and wouldn’t cause you any harm.
  • Twisted cyst. This is often an explanation for severe lower abdominal pain. Cysts are often attached to the ovary, like apples to their stalk. If the cyst twists on the stalk or pedicle, the blood flow to the cyst is stopping which causes severe pain. This goes ahead as an unexpected beginning of lower stomach torment that goes to the hip, lower back, and upper leg. The pain is usually there and sometimes becomes even worse because the ovary is trying to un-twist itself. you’ll vomit with the pain. If this seems like what you’re suffering from you’ll get to seek urgent medical attention.
  • Ruptured cyst. This is often similar in nature to a ruptured endocrine gland, except that it’s happening during a bigger cyst. The pain is more severe and spreads to the rear and upper thigh. you’ll need urgent medical attention here also.

10. Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis may be an explanation for lower abdominal pain, especially in middle-aged and elderly people.

Diverticulitis is thanks to weakness within the wall of the massive bowels, there might be out-pouching on the bowel wall, forming numerous finger-shaped pockets. As bowel contents move down, they might be trapped within these pockets. In large amounts, they cause an intermittent change in bowel habit – constipation alternating with diarrhea. There could even be a passage of mucus in stools.

If these pockets of out-pouched bowel walls with trapped feces becomes infected thanks to excessive activities of bacteria inside them, it causes:

  • Constipation followed by diarrhea
  • Blood (and mucus) within the stool
  • Constant lower left abdominal pain (though sometimes, the diverticular changes could also involve the proper side)
  • Fever
  • Pain within the lower-left abdomen when touched

Increasing the majority of fiber in your meal will help. If you think though that you simply have diverticulitis, you’ll get to attend the hospital as soon as possible to be seen by a doctor. you’ll get to be hospitalized and given intravenous antibiotics and drip.

Other Common Causes Of Pain within the Lower Abdomen

Other common causes of pain within the lower abdomen include:

  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Fibroid
  • Epiplocitis
  • Gastroenteritis (Food poisoning)
  • Hernia
  • Abdominal aneurysm
  • Kidney stone
  • Miscarriage
  • Labour pain
  • Broad ligament pain in mid and late pregnancy
  • Symphysis pubis dysfunction in late pregnancy
  • Diabetic Keto Acidosis
  • Testicular torsion
  • Prostatitis in men
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  • Trapped wind or Intestinal gas
  • Coeliac disease
  • Eosinophilic colitis
  • Anxiety
  • Retention of urine within the bladder
  • Lactose Intolerance
  • Food Allergy
  • Adhesions if you’ve got had previous abdominal surgery
  • Loin Pain Haematuria Syndrome
  • Bowel cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Meckel’s diverticulitis

Have you suffered from the other causes of lower abdominal pain not mentioned here? we might wish to hear from you. Please use the box below to assist increase the list of causes of lower abdominal pain. Remember to share the small print of your experience with this condition.


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